One hundred and fifty-one years ago Carlos Manuel de Céspedes freed his slaves and called them to fight for the liberty and independence of Cuba and to put an end to the Spanish colonialism that ruthlessly subjugated practically the entire population of the Island.
On October 10, 1968, Céspedes, decided to start the necessary war that would last ten years, which although it did not succeeded, it served to express the desire and need of Cubans to be free and independent from the clutches of Spain, and it left a fertile seed in the patriots who would resume the struggle almost two decades later.
On that occasion, Céspedes, also called Father of the Fatherland, would make known the Manifesto of October 10, little known at the time and that expressed the causes or reasons for which Cubans launched into the struggle, by stating: “… Spain governs Cuba with a bloody iron arm…”.
The document reflects how the Creoles were not granted the right to assemble except in the presence of a Spanish official, the lack of freedom of expression and beliefs, and it also pointed out that there were no personal ambitions, it also clarified that the war was not against Spain, but against the colonial exploitation that it was carrying out in the Largest of the Antilles.
This programmatic platform was called to all those gathered as brothers, which gave a place to blacks within society through gradual emancipation and under compensation for slavery, an aspect that would be surpassed in the constitution of Guáimaro, when there the assembly members of the magna date pronounced themselves for the total abolition of this discriminatory form.
In the Manifesto of October 10, the unshakable decision of Cubans to die rather than renounce independence was proclaimed. It was the driving force behind the following attempts to achieve freedom and to belong to the concert of nations of the world and of the American homeland, reflecting: “Cuba can no longer belong to a power that, like Cain, kills its brothers, and, like Saturn, devours its children. (…), aspires to be a great and civilized nation, to stretch out a friendly arm and a fraternal heart to all other peoples, and if Spain itself consents to leave her free and calm, it will hold her in its bosom like a loving daughter of a good mother; but if Spain persists in its system of domination and extermination, it will reap all our necks, and the necks of those who come after us, before succeeding in making Cuba forever a vile flock of slaves.
The Manifesto of October 10, as Montecristi’s, signed by José Martí and Máximo Gómez, “History will absolve me”, Fidel Castro Ruz’s plea, in the trial for the events of the Moncada, are brothers as a principle and continuity of the traditions of struggle of the Cuban people.